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William I

Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für William the Bastard [William I of England also the Conqueror] im Online-Wörterbuch dragonseek.nu (Deutschwörterbuch). William I (Penguin Monarchs): England's Conqueror | Morris, Marc | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch. Media in category "William I of Württemberg". The following 40 files are in this category, out of 40 total. Wilhelmjpg × ; 39 KB.

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Wilhelm der Eroberer war ab als Wilhelm II. Herzog der Normandie und regierte von 10als Wilhelm I. auch das Königreich England. Der romanisierte Normanne war der Stammvater der kurzlebigen normannischen Dynastie in England, die in. Wilhelm der Eroberer (englisch William the Conqueror, normannisch Williame II, französisch Guillaume le Conquérant; vor der Eroberung Englands Wilhelm der. Donald Ban Macwilliam, ein Sohn von William fitz Duncan, nutzte die Abwesenheit des Königs und wurde zum Führer einer Rebellion in Moray und Ross. Diese. William I (Penguin Monarchs): England's Conqueror | Morris, Marc | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch. William I, Prince of Orange. by Gerard Valck, after Adriaen van der Werff line engraving, late 17th to early 18th century. NPG D Find out more > · Use this. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für William the Bastard [William I of England also the Conqueror] im Online-Wörterbuch dragonseek.nu (Deutschwörterbuch). Kostenlose Lieferung für viele Artikel,Finden Sie Top-Angebote für ~~~ ORGINAL​~~~ POSTKARTE ~~~ König William I von Württenberg bei.

William I

Bates, David: William the Conqueror.. London ISBN Roach, Levi: Aethelred the Unready. The Unready. London William I (Penguin Monarchs): England's Conqueror | Morris, Marc | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch. The oldest part and pride of the UNESCO-protected building is the White Tower, which dates from the days of William the. Others, such as H. Rex, Peter Hödel used a revolver to shoot at the then year-old Emperor, while he and his daughter, Princess Louiseparaded in their carriage on Unter den William I. Henry was still a minor, however, and Sweyn was more likely to support Harold, who could then help Sweyn against the Norwegian king, so these claims should Boku Handy Bezahlen treated with caution. In his memoirs, Bismarck describes William as an old-fashioned, courteous, infallibly polite gentleman and a genuine Prussian officer, whose good common sense was occasionally undermined by "female influences". William and his wife Matilda of Flanders had at least nine children. Top Questions. William I Search overworks,of which are Online Poker Test from the 16th Century to the present day. Hallo Welt. In anderen Teilen Schottlands florierte aber der Handel. Jahrhundert geschaffen. Der Eintrag wurde Ihren Favoriten hinzugefügt. Dieser war fest entschlossen, den geplanten Kreuzzug Summer Olympics Rio. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. In dieser Zeit kam günstiger Wind auf, und Wilhelm schiffte hastig seine Truppen ein. Wilhelm versuchte, weitere Slots Game Cheats in Schottland in ein Lehnsverhältnis zur Krone zu bringen.

William I - Media in category "William I of Württemberg"

Die gestellten Geiseln, darunter zwei Töchter von Wilhelm, befanden sich noch immer in England. Er lag unter dem toten Pferd eingeklemmt und musste sich Ranulf de Glanville ergeben. Um die Hauptstadt überwachen zu können, zog er mit seinem Heer nach Barking , was die Einkreisung Londons komplettierte. Wilhelm von Poitiers stützte seine Darstellung stark auf klassische Autoren und wird diesen Topos mit Sicherheit gekannt haben.

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William the Conqueror: Warrior King Bates, David: William the Conqueror.. London ISBN Roach, Levi: Aethelred the Unready. The Unready. London Media in category "William I of Württemberg". The following 40 files are in this category, out of 40 total. Wilhelmjpg × ; 39 KB. The oldest part and pride of the UNESCO-protected building is the White Tower, which dates from the days of William the. Vorschau cover. © Understanding Psychological Assessment. Herausgeber: Dorfman, William I., Hersen, Michel (Eds.) Vorschau. Dieses Buch kaufen. William I

In , on the accession of his childless elder brother, Frederick William IV , he became prince of Prussia and heir presumptive.

After a brief exile in England, he returned to Prussia in June , and in he commanded the troops sent to suppress an insurrection in Baden.

He married this witty and temperamental princess in , after renouncing a youthful love affair with Eliza Radziwill.

Appointed military governor of Rhineland Province in , he made his residence at Coblenz , a centre of opposition to the reactionary policies of Berlin.

From October William was regent for his ailing brother, and, on Jan. The problems raised for Prussia in by the wars for Italian independence were beyond his capacity: while he favoured an alliance with Austria against the France of Napoleon III , he insisted that Prussia have the supreme command on the Rhenish front; and the Austro-French armistice of Villafranca took him by surprise.

Backed by his war minister, Albrecht von Roon, and by the chief of the military cabinet, Edwin von Manteuffel, the King insisted on a three-year term of military conscription, which the liberal lower chamber rejected in William thereupon was ready to abdicate but was dissuaded by Bismarck, whom he installed as prime minister during this crisis.

In , when the Hohenzollern candidature to the Spanish throne was leading to the Franco-German War , William was far more cautious than Bismarck; during the war, he arbitrated between his chief advisers, Bismarck and Helmuth von Moltke.

General indignation at the two attempts made on his life in by Max Hödel on May 11 and by K. Print Cite.

But Duke William met him in battle and won. In the king again entered Normandy with a large hostile force. He split his army in two and led the southern forces himself.

He had everything that could be used as food removed ahead of the French armies. William also split his soldiers into two armies.

William's forces watched the king's armies looking for any chance to attack. This caused his forces to relax and enjoy themselves.

When the king got the news that his brother's army had been destroyed his army was struck with panic. The king and his men left Normandy as fast as they could.

But in the king broke the peace and invaded Normandy again. Just as before William kept the king's army close but waited for the best time to strike.

This came as the French army was crossing the Dives river at Varaville. He took what remained of his army and left Normandy for good.

The king died a short time later. The new king, his young son Phillip, was under the care of William's father-in-law, Baldwin V.

Her two sons by her former marriage fled to Normandy for their own safety. Edward , the older son, stayed in Normandy for many years at the court of the dukes.

The last duke who protected him there was his cousin William. Edward became King of England in While he was there he promised Duke William he would support him as successor to the English throne.

But Harold did not respect his oaths. Harold was not royalty himself and had no legal claim on the throne.

William began his plans for invasion almost as soon as he received news of the events in England. His friendship with Brittany, France, and Flanders meant he did not have to rely only on his own army.

William asked for and got the support of the pope who gave him a banner to carry into battle. The king of England knew both would be coming but he kept his ships and forces in the south of England where William might land.

William may have had as many as 1, ships in his invasion fleet. The king rested at London for a few days before taking his army to meet William and his French forces.

King Harold's army took up a position on an east-west ridge north of Hastings. While Harold had more soldiers, they were tired from the forced march from London.

He sent his archers halfway up the slope to attack the English. Harold's front line simply stood fast and was able to fend off any attacks.

William removed his helmet so his men could see he was still alive. He turned suddenly and charged the oncoming English foot soldiers who had no chance against mounted knights.

This tactic worked at least two more times during the battle and made Harold's shield wall weaker. Where his attacks by knights and soldiers had been separate movements he now used them together.

By nightfall the English were either dead on the field or being hunted down by William's troops. The battle was won but the English still had smaller armies which had not joined King Harold at Hastings.

William rested his army for five days before moving towards London. William chose to be crowned at Christmas. It was also a good choice because he believed it was God's will he be king.

Many of his soldiers who had been paid and others he wished to keep track of. He also brought his remaining three English earls, Edwin, Morcar and Waltheof.

Also many of his soldiers needed to come back to keep the duchy safe. When William returned to London in December of he began to find out what problems had come up while he was gone.

Then Exeter had not accepted the rule of the new king. He also called out English levies. After he subdued Devon and Cornwall all seemed quiet.

By summer more rebellions had broken out. Edgar Atheling along with his mother and sisters left for Scotland where they were welcomed.

Earl Edwin and his brother Morcar left William's court to join the rebels in the north. From there, he ravaged the interior and waited for Harold's return from the north, refusing to venture far from the sea, his line of communication with Normandy.

After defeating Harald Hardrada and Tostig, Harold left much of his army in the north, including Morcar and Edwin, and marched the rest south to deal with the threatened Norman invasion.

Harold stopped in London, and was there for about a week before marching to Hastings, so it is likely that he spent about a week on his march south, averaging about 27 miles 43 kilometres per day, [81] for the distance of approximately miles kilometres.

The exact events preceding the battle are obscure, with contradictory accounts in the sources, but all agree that William led his army from his castle and advanced towards the enemy.

Some of William's Breton troops panicked and fled, and some of the English troops appear to have pursued the fleeing Bretons until they themselves were attacked and destroyed by Norman cavalry.

During the Bretons' flight, rumours swept through the Norman forces that the duke had been killed, but William succeeded in rallying his troops.

Two further Norman retreats were feigned, to once again draw the English into pursuit and expose them to repeated attacks by the Norman cavalry.

The Bayeux Tapestry has been claimed to show Harold's death by an arrow to the eye, but that may be a later reworking of the tapestry to conform to 12th-century stories in which Harold was slain by an arrow wound to the head.

Harold's body was identified the day after the battle, either through his armour or marks on his body. The English dead, who included some of Harold's brothers and his housecarls , were left on the battlefield.

Gytha, Harold's mother, offered the victorious duke the weight of her son's body in gold for its custody, but her offer was refused. Waltham Abbey , which had been founded by Harold, later claimed that his body had been secretly buried there.

William may have hoped the English would surrender following his victory, but they did not. After waiting a short while, William secured Dover , parts of Kent, and Canterbury , while also sending a force to capture Winchester , where the royal treasury was.

Next he led his forces around the south and west of London, burning along the way. He finally crossed the Thames at Wallingford in early December.

William then sent forces into London to construct a castle; he was crowned at Westminster Abbey on Christmas Day William remained in England after his coronation and tried to reconcile the native magnates.

Ecclesiastical offices continued to be held by the same bishops as before the invasion, including the uncanonical Stigand. He left his half-brother Odo, the Bishop of Bayeux, in charge of England along with another influential supporter, William fitzOsbern , the son of his former guardian.

English resistance had also begun, with Eadric the Wild attacking Hereford and revolts at Exeter , where Harold's mother Gytha was a focus of resistance.

The town held out for 18 days, and after it fell to William he built a castle to secure his control. Harold's sons were meanwhile raiding the southwest of England from a base in Ireland.

Their forces landed near Bristol but were defeated by Eadnoth. By Easter, William was at Winchester, where he was soon joined by his wife Matilda, who was crowned in May The chronicler Orderic Vitalis states that Edwin's reason for revolting was that the proposed marriage between himself and one of William's daughters had not taken place, but another reason probably included the increasing power of fitzOsbern in Herefordshire, which affected Edwin's power within his own earldom.

The king marched through Edwin's lands and built Warwick Castle. Edwin and Morcar submitted, but William continued on to York, building York and Nottingham Castles before returning south.

On his southbound journey, he began constructing Lincoln , Huntingdon , and Cambridge Castles. Then the king returned to Normandy late in Although William returned to York and built another castle, Edgar remained free, and in the autumn he joined up with King Sweyn.

York was captured by the combined forces of Edgar and Sweyn. Edgar was proclaimed king by his supporters. William responded swiftly, ignoring a continental revolt in Maine, and symbolically wore his crown in the ruins of York on Christmas Day He then proceeded to buy off the Danes.

He marched to the River Tees , ravaging the countryside as he went. But William was not finished; he marched over the Pennines during the winter and defeated the remaining rebels at Shrewsbury before building Chester and Stafford Castles.

This campaign, which included the burning and destruction of part of the countryside that the royal forces marched through, is usually known as the " Harrying of the North "; it was over by April , when William wore his crown ceremonially for Easter at Winchester.

The legates ceremonially crowned William during the Easter court. Some of the native abbots were also deposed, both at the council held near Easter and at a further one near Whitsun.

The Whitsun council saw the appointment of Lanfranc as the new Archbishop of Canterbury, and Thomas of Bayeux as the new Archbishop of York, to replace Ealdred, who had died in September Although Sweyn had promised to leave England, he returned in spring , raiding along the Humber and East Anglia toward the Isle of Ely , where he joined up with Hereward the Wake , a local thegn.

Hereward's forces attacked Peterborough Abbey , which they captured and looted. William was able to secure the departure of Sweyn and his fleet in , [] allowing him to return to the continent to deal with troubles in Maine, where the town of Le Mans had revolted in Another concern was the death of Count Baldwin VI of Flanders in July , which led to a succession crisis as his widow, Richilde , was ruling for their two young sons, Arnulf and Baldwin.

Her rule, however, was contested by Robert , Baldwin's brother. Richilde proposed marriage to William fitzOsbern, who was in Normandy, and fitzOsbern accepted.

But after he was killed in February at the Battle of Cassel , Robert became count. He was opposed to King William's power on the continent, thus the Battle of Cassel upset the balance of power in northern France in addition to costing William an important supporter.

In William defeated the last rebellion of the north. Earl Edwin was betrayed by his own men and killed, while William built a causeway to subdue the Isle of Ely, where Hereward the Wake and Morcar were hiding.

Hereward escaped, but Morcar was captured, deprived of his earldom, and imprisoned. In William invaded Scotland, defeating Malcolm, who had recently invaded the north of England.

William and Malcolm agreed to peace by signing the Treaty of Abernethy , and Malcolm probably gave up his son Duncan as a hostage for the peace.

With a swift campaign, William seized Le Mans from Fulk's forces, completing the campaign by 30 March William returned to England to release his army from service in but quickly returned to Normandy, where he spent all of The French king, seeking a focus for those opposed to William's power, then proposed that Edgar be given the castle of Montreuil-sur-Mer on the Channel, which would have given Edgar a strategic advantage against William.

The exact reason for the rebellion is unclear, but it was launched at the wedding of Ralph to a relative of Roger, held at Exning in Suffolk. Waltheof, the earl of Northumbria, although one of William's favourites, was also involved, and there were some Breton lords who were ready to rebel in support of Ralph and Roger.

Ralph also requested Danish aid. William remained in Normandy while his men in England subdued the revolt. Ralph eventually left Norwich in the control of his wife and left England, finally ending up in Brittany.

Norwich was besieged and surrendered, with the garrison allowed to go to Brittany. Meanwhile, the Danish king's brother, Cnut , had finally arrived in England with a fleet of ships, but he was too late as Norwich had already surrendered.

The Danes then raided along the coast before returning home. He celebrated Christmas at Winchester and dealt with the aftermath of the rebellion.

Before this, William had returned to the continent, where Ralph had continued the rebellion from Brittany. Earl Ralph had secured control of the castle at Dol , and in September William advanced into Brittany and laid siege to the castle.

King Philip of France later relieved the siege and defeated William at the Battle of Dol , forcing him to retreat back to Normandy.

Although this was William's first defeat in battle, it did little to change things. An Angevin attack on Maine was defeated in late or , with Count Fulk le Rechin wounded in the unsuccessful attack.

Before he became a monk, Simon handed his county of the Vexin over to King Philip. The Vexin was a buffer state between Normandy and the lands of the French king, and Simon had been a supporter of William.

In late or early trouble began between William and his eldest son, Robert. Although Orderic Vitalis describes it as starting with a quarrel between Robert and his two younger brothers, William and Henry , including a story that the quarrel was started when William and Henry threw water at Robert, it is much more likely that Robert was feeling powerless.

Orderic relates that he had previously demanded control of Maine and Normandy and had been rebuffed. The trouble in or resulted in Robert leaving Normandy accompanied by a band of young men, many of them the sons of William's supporters.

This band of young men went to the castle at Remalard , where they proceeded to raid into Normandy. The raiders were supported by many of William's continental enemies.

William then laid siege to Gerberoi in January After three weeks, the besieged forces sallied from the castle and managed to take the besiegers by surprise.

William was unhorsed by Robert and was only saved from death by an Englishman, Toki son of Wigod, who was himself killed. By 12 April , William and Robert had reached an accommodation, with William once more affirming that Robert would receive Normandy when he died.

Word of William's defeat at Gerberoi stirred up difficulties in northern England. The lack of Norman response appears to have caused the Northumbrians to grow restive, and in the spring of they rebelled against the rule of William Walcher , the Bishop of Durham and Earl of Northumbria.

Walcher was killed on 14 May , and the king dispatched his half-brother Odo to deal with the rebellion. Robert raided into Lothian and forced Malcolm to agree to terms, building a fortification at Newcastle-on-Tyne while returning to England.

A papal embassy arrived in England during this period, asking that William do fealty for England to the papacy, a request that he rejected.

William's biographer David Bates argues that the former explanation is more likely, explaining that the balance of power had recently shifted in Wales and that William would have wished to take advantage of the changed circumstances to extend Norman power.

By the end of , William was back on the continent, dealing with disturbances in Maine. Although he led an expedition into Maine, the result was instead a negotiated settlement arranged by a papal legate.

Sources for William's actions between and are meagre. According to the historian David Bates, this probably means that little happened of note, and that because William was on the continent, there was nothing for the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle to record.

The exact reasons are unclear, as no contemporary author recorded what caused the quarrel between the half-brothers.

Orderic Vitalis later recorded that Odo had aspirations to become pope. Orderic also related that Odo had attempted to persuade some of William's vassals to join Odo on an invasion of southern Italy.

This would have been considered tampering with the king's authority over his vassals, which William would not have tolerated. Although Odo remained in confinement for the rest of William's reign, his lands were not confiscated.

More difficulties struck in , when William's son Robert rebelled once more with support from the French king. A further blow was the death of Queen Matilda on 2 November William was always described as close to his wife, and her death would have added to his problems.

Maine continued to be difficult, with a rebellion by Hubert de Beaumont-au-Maine , probably in Hubert was besieged in his castle at Sainte-Suzanne by William's forces for at least two years, but he eventually made his peace with the king and was restored to favour.

Although English and Norman forces remained on alert throughout and into , the invasion threat was ended by Cnut's death in July These fortifications allowed Normans to retreat into safety when threatened with rebellion and allowed garrisons to be protected while they occupied the countryside.

The early castles were simple earth and timber constructions, later replaced with stone structures. At first, most of the newly settled Normans kept household knights and did not settle their retainers with fiefs of their own, but gradually these household knights came to be granted lands of their own, a process known as subinfeudation.

William also required his newly created magnates to contribute fixed quotas of knights towards not only military campaigns but also castle garrisons.

This method of organising the military forces was a departure from the pre-Conquest English practice of basing military service on territorial units such as the hide.

By William's death, after weathering a series of rebellions, most of the native Anglo-Saxon aristocracy had been replaced by Norman and other continental magnates.

Not all of the Normans who accompanied William in the initial conquest acquired large amounts of land in England.

Some appear to have been reluctant to take up lands in a kingdom that did not always appear pacified.

Although some of the newly rich Normans in England came from William's close family or from the upper Norman nobility, others were from relatively humble backgrounds.

The medieval chronicler William of Malmesbury says that the king also seized and depopulated many miles of land 36 parishes , turning it into the royal New Forest region to support his enthusiastic enjoyment of hunting.

Modern historians have come to the conclusion that the New Forest depopulation was greatly exaggerated. Most of the lands of the New Forest are poor agricultural lands, and archaeological and geographic studies have shown that it was likely sparsely settled when it was turned into a royal forest.

After , William did not attempt to integrate his separate domains into one unified realm with one set of laws.

His seal from after , of which six impressions still survive, was made for him after he conquered England and stressed his role as king, while separately mentioning his role as duke.

The administrative machinery of Normandy, England, and Maine continued to exist separate from the other lands, with each one retaining its own forms.

For example, England continued the use of writs , which were not known on the continent. Also, the charters and documents produced for the government in Normandy differed in formulas from those produced in England.

William took over an English government that was more complex than the Norman system. England was divided into shires or counties, which were further divided into either hundreds or wapentakes.

Each shire was administered by a royal official called a sheriff, who roughly had the same status as a Norman viscount.

A sheriff was responsible for royal justice and collecting royal revenue. He crossed back and forth between the continent and England at least 19 times between and his death.

William spent most of his time in England between the Battle of Hastings and , and after that, he spent the majority of his time in Normandy.

William also appointed deputies who could make decisions while he was absent, especially if the absence was expected to be lengthy. Sometimes deputies were appointed to deal with specific issues.

William continued the collection of danegeld, a land tax. This was an advantage for William, as it was the only universal tax collected by western European rulers during this period.

It was an annual tax based on the value of landholdings, and it could be collected at differing rates. Most years saw the rate of two shillings per hide, but in crises, it could be increased to as much as six shillings per hide.

English coins were generally of high silver content, with high artistic standards, and were required to be re-minted every three years.

Norman coins had a much lower silver content, were often of poor artistic quality, and were rarely re-minted.

William I Chinesisch Wörterbücher. Senden Sie uns gern einen neuen Eintrag. We are currently closed until springwhile essential building works take place Become a Member. Select the portrait of interest to you, Ipad Geld Aufladen look out for a Buy a Print button. Wilhelm legte als Zeichen seiner Unterwerfung seinen Helm, seine Lanze und seinen Sattel auf dem Altar von York Minster ab, was sowohl kirchliche wie auch weltliche Bedeutung hatte. Wilhelm entschloss sich daher, die Stadt zu isolieren.

Backed by his war minister, Albrecht von Roon, and by the chief of the military cabinet, Edwin von Manteuffel, the King insisted on a three-year term of military conscription, which the liberal lower chamber rejected in William thereupon was ready to abdicate but was dissuaded by Bismarck, whom he installed as prime minister during this crisis.

In , when the Hohenzollern candidature to the Spanish throne was leading to the Franco-German War , William was far more cautious than Bismarck; during the war, he arbitrated between his chief advisers, Bismarck and Helmuth von Moltke.

General indignation at the two attempts made on his life in by Max Hödel on May 11 and by K. Print Cite. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites.

Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. Heritage History - Biography of William I.

Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Harold's front line simply stood fast and was able to fend off any attacks.

William removed his helmet so his men could see he was still alive. He turned suddenly and charged the oncoming English foot soldiers who had no chance against mounted knights.

This tactic worked at least two more times during the battle and made Harold's shield wall weaker. Where his attacks by knights and soldiers had been separate movements he now used them together.

By nightfall the English were either dead on the field or being hunted down by William's troops. The battle was won but the English still had smaller armies which had not joined King Harold at Hastings.

William rested his army for five days before moving towards London. William chose to be crowned at Christmas.

It was also a good choice because he believed it was God's will he be king. Many of his soldiers who had been paid and others he wished to keep track of.

He also brought his remaining three English earls, Edwin, Morcar and Waltheof. Also many of his soldiers needed to come back to keep the duchy safe.

When William returned to London in December of he began to find out what problems had come up while he was gone.

Then Exeter had not accepted the rule of the new king. He also called out English levies. After he subdued Devon and Cornwall all seemed quiet.

By summer more rebellions had broken out. Edgar Atheling along with his mother and sisters left for Scotland where they were welcomed. Earl Edwin and his brother Morcar left William's court to join the rebels in the north.

This caused the Earls and others to give in to William. Other castles followed. William then entered York where others came to him and submitted.

In a second uprising developed into a war. A small Norman force was holding out in York when William came to their aid.

But the northern English leaders had sent word to King Swein in Denmark offering him the crown if he could defeat the Normans.

Swein sent a Danish fleet to England. In the summer of the Danish fleet appeared off the coast of Kent. It moved up the coast towards the north, raiding as it went.

The remaining English earls all deserted William and joined the combined English-Danish forces. They moved against the Norman garrison at York and killed all but a few women and children.

William's northern army was wiped out and York was in ruins. At the same time smaller rebellions were breaking out in Wales and southwest England.

He began by calling in all his commanders and troops to combine his forces. The king knew that with a smaller army he had to deal with one group of rebels at a time.

William himself fought an army moving in from the east. In both cases the Norman armies were victorious. But he was unable to get any farther north than Pontefract.

They agreed and returned to the mouth of the Humber to winter there. He rebuilt the castles there.

He then had his forces spread out and destroy everything useful for the English and Danish army to feed itself.

The few remaining groups were quickly crushed by William's army. This was at Chester and after a forced march during Winter, William surprised them before they were ready.

William never again had to lay waste to a county as he did to Yorkshire. He had dealt with the main threats to his rule but some had only been solved in part.

They joined a small group of rebels on the Isle of Ely led by Hereward the Wake. Hereward was never heard from again.

William now had to rule both England and Normandy. When he was in Normandy trouble often broke out in England.

William had to take it back in His plan was to become the next Pope. But his attempts to recover rights lost during the anarchy and to bring disobedient vassals and servants to heel inevitably led to trouble.

From until he dealt with a series of baronial rebellions, mostly led by his kinsmen. Occasionally he was in great danger and had to rely on Henry of France for help, but it was during these years that William learned to fight and rule.

William soon learned to control his youthful recklessness. He was always ready to take calculated risks on campaign and to fight a battle, but he was not a flamboyant commander.

His plans were simple, his methods direct, and he ruthlessly exploited any opportunity. If he found himself at a disadvantage, he withdrew immediately.

He showed the same qualities in his government. He never lost sight of his aim to recover lost ducal rights and revenues, and, although he developed no theory of government or great interest in administrative techniques, he was always prepared to improvise and experiment.

He was moral and pious by the standards of the time, and he acquired an interest in the welfare of the Norman church. He made his half brother Odo bishop of Bayeux in at the age of about 16; as bishop, Odo combined the roles of nobleman and prelate in a way that did not greatly shock contemporaries.

Although Odo and the other bishops appointed by William were not recognized for their spirituality, they strengthened the church in Normandy by their pious donations and administrative skill.

Presiding over numerous church councils, William and his bishops passed important legislation against simony the selling of church offices and clerical marriage.

He also welcomed foreign monks and scholars to Normandy, including Lanfranc of Pavia, a famous master of the liberal arts , who entered the monastery of Bec about and was made abbot of Caen in

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